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Nr 10, 2007

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J. Barszczewski

Ocena skutków środowiskowych zmian rodzaju użytkowania gruntów na przykładzie wybranych pól w gospodarstwie rolnym
The estimation of environmental changes of land utilization on example chosen fields on the agricultural farm

  • Abstract

    • Abstract. The studies were carried out on three fields: A – after alfalfa plough, B – field in third and fourth year of course of alfalfa growing, C – on permanent meadow. The studies shown differentiation in the range of content of mineral forms nitrogen, phosphorus and soil pH. Progressive changes in utilization structure, leading to increase of alfalfa growing, after its plough in order to get better quality of fodder, caused increase of studied nutrients. There also was noticed pH decrease, mostly in higher soil layers with large share of roots mass, indicating on significant mineralization of organic matter and nitrogen transformation caused the acceleration of soil acidification. Large amount mineral forms of nitrogen and phosphorus, not only in upper soil layers especially after alfalfa plough, testify that plough makes process of nitrogen and phosphorus liberation and displaced in soil profile more intensive, what caused soil and water pollution. Large stability of nutrient contents in particular points of permanent meadow show its protective functions. Concentrations of particular nutrients in ground water from field after alfalfa plough let classify water to III or IV class of underground water. Much less concentrations were noticed in ground waters from remaining fields, show on III or even II class of its quality.

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H. Czyż,
T. Kitczak,
A. Stelmaszyk
Wartość paszowa, przyrodnicza i energetyczna polderowych użytków zielonych wyłączonych z działalności rolniczej
Fodder, natural and energy value of polder grasslands excluded from agricultural use
  • Abstract

    • Abstract. Communities of Phragmites australis, Glyceria maxima, Carex gracilis, Phalaris arundinacea and Alopecurus pratensis with Festuca rubra, which were included to researches, are the most popular on habitat conditions of West Pomeranian grasslands. The aim of the study was definition of relations between floristic character of communities and their fodder, natural and energy values. Community of Phalaris arundinacea distinguished as the best of fodder value, communities of Glyceria maxima and Carex gracilis – as the best of natural values. Energy value of communities was comparable.

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A. Dradrach,
D. Gąbka,
J. Szlachta,
K. Wolski

Wartość energetyczna kilku gatunków traw uprawianych na glebie lekkiej
Energy value of several grass species cultivated on light soil

  • Abstract

    • Abstract. In the research performed, the yield of dry mass of individual grass species, the energy value and ash content were determined. The most valuable species for energy crops turned out to be plants of the C4 photosynthetic type. Those species were characterized with high yield at limited fertilization and supply with rain and ground water. The fuel value of 1 kg of such biomass amounts to 10-20 MJ. The research has also shown a smaller ash content in the biomass of those grass species, compared with the perennial, native grasses of type C3 type Phalaris arundinacea L. or Dactylis glomerata L.

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P. Goliński,
W. Jokś

Właściwości chemiczne i biologiczne trawa produkcja biogazu
Chemical and biological properties of grasses and biogas production

  • Abstract

    • Abstract. The objective of this research project was to determine grass biological and chemical properties from the point of view of their suitability for biogas production. On the basis of a thorough review of both domestic and foreign literature on the subject as well as our own experiments on yields and chemical composition of some selected grasses cultivated at the Szelejewo Plant Breeding Station Ltd., the authors determined the usefulness of these grasses for biogas production and their properties affecting energy production efficiency in biogas facilities. In addition, a model assessment of the conversion of grass into biogas in comparison with milk production from the economical point of view was carried out. It was found that grass dry matter yield and their chemical composition exerted the strongest impact on such assessment.

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P. Goliński,
W. Spychalski,
B. Golińska,
D. Kroehnke

Wpływ odmiany hodowlanej Trifolium repens L. na skład mineralny runi mieszanki trawiasto-motylkowatej
Effect of Trifolium repens L. cultivars on sward mineral composition of grass-legume mixture

  • Abstract

    • Abstract. In 2003-2004 an experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of selected cultivars of Trifolium repens used in the grass-legume mixture with meadow fescue and perennial ryegrass on the mineral composition of the sward. The following five Polish cultivars of white clover were analysed: Astra, Aura, Dara, Rawo, Romena as well as three breeding strains: ABM 9 BD (NL), AND 1602 (PL), WOM 302 (PL). In samples of plant material the selected mineral components (Ca, Mg, P, K, Na, S, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn) were analysed. It turned out, that the Trifolium repens cultivar used in the mixture with the meadow fescue and perennial ryegrass affects the variability of the mineral constituents of the grass-legume sward. With regard to mineral components found in the grass-legume sward, the strongest positive impact of the Trifolium repens cultivar was determined in relation to calcium, magnesium and zinc.

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W. Harkot,
M. Warda,
J. Sawicki,
H. Lipińska,
T. Wyłupek,
Z. Czarnecki,
M. Kulik

Możliwości wykorzystania runi łąkowej do celów energetycznych
The possibility of meadow sward use for energy purposes

  • Abstract

    • Abstract. Recently, considerable areas of grassland have been receiving various direct farm subsidies. As a result of the implementation of the Agri-Environment Scheme, especially packages for extensive meadow and pasture utilization, the obtained biomass is low-quality fodder, which requires finding other uses for it. Using meadow sward for energy purposes is one of the possible options. Initial research in this respect was conducted in 2006 and 2007 on grasslands of south-eastern Poland and they indicated that meadow plants can be used for energy purposes. The added advantage of the plant material under study is that it is environment-friendly and renewable.

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