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Nr 18, 2015

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J. Alberski,
M. Olszewska,
A. Bałuch-
M. Kurzeja

Wartość energetyczna biomasy z użytkowanych ekstensywnie łąk warkalsko-trojańskich

Energy value of biomass from the extensively used Warkały-Trojan meadows

  • Abstract

    • Abstract. The study was conducted in Warkały-Trojan meadows located in the municipality of Jonkowo, in the Regions of Warmia and Mazury (NE Poland). Due to the absence of farming practices and cultivation measures, a large area of the meadows is covered by grass communities of low nutritional value, whose biomass can be used for energy production. The aim of this study was to determine the energy value of biomass from Warkały-Trojan meadows.

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A. Bałuch-Małecka,
M. Olszewska,
J. Alberski

Wzrost i rozwój wybranych gatunków traw z rodzaju Miscanthus uprawianych w warunkach klimatycznych Pojezierza Olsztyńskiego

The growth and development of selected grass species of genus Miscanthus under the climatic conditions of the Olsztyn Lakeland

  • Abstract

    • Abstract. A field experiment was conducted in spring of 2007 in the Agricultural Experiment Station in Bałdy, owned by the University of Warmia and Mazury (NE Poland). The experiment had a completely randomized design with four replications. Plot size was 20 m2. Twenty seedlings of giant miscanthus (Miscanthus sinensis giganteus Greef & Deuter) and 60 seedlings of Amur silvergrass (Miscanthus sacchariflorus (Maxim.) Hack) were grown per plot, at the density of 1 plant per m2 and 3 plants per m2, respectively. The experiment was established on mineral soil (sandy silt) of quality class IVa. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of climatic conditions in the Olsztyn Lakeland on the growth and development of introduced species of C4 grasses.

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B. Borawska-
G. Mastalerczuk,
M. Długowska

Ocena nawierzchni trawnikowych w wybranych parkach Warszawy

The valuation of lawn surfaces of selected park in Warsaw

  • Abstract

    • Abstract. The aim of the study was to determine the state of carpet, park and meadow lawns at selected parks in Warsaw and propose methods to improve their turf. The study was conducted in 2007–2012 at the parks – the Łazienki Królewskie, Wilanów and Pole Mokotowskie. The objects of research were three kinds of ornamental lawns – carpet, park and meadow. There were evaluated: cover, colour and aesthetic aspect. There were also determined the botanical composition of the sward. It was found clear differences in cover, colour and botanical composition of respondents lawn surface both between their types, as well as within individual types. Ways to improve the
      condition of the turf were proposed.

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M. Budzyńska,
K. Dąbrowska-
M. Tomaszewska,
M. Bartold,
M. Gatkowska

Badania nad obiegiem węgla na obszarach łąkowych 

Studies on carbon exchange in grassland areas

  • Abstract

    • Abstract. The paper presents the preliminary results of the task in the framework of ongoing project FINEGRASS “Effect of climatic changes on grassland growth, its water conditions and biomass” funded by the Polish-Norwegian Research Programme. The objective of this task is the assessment of carbon exchange in grassland areas using in-situ and remote sensing data. Grasslands are very sensitive ecosystem where significant changes of the carbon balance occur under different climate change, where grasslands either sequestrate or become the sources of carbon. The study was conducted in the years 2014–2015 at Wielkopolska Region, Biebrza River Valley, and Pieniny Mountains test sites, that cover three following grassland types: lowland non–valley, lowland valley, and mountainous. The paper presents in-situ and microwave and optical satellite observations to quantify relationships between soil-vegetation parameters that influence spatial and temporal variability of carbon fluxes over these areas. The next step of the study is the application of satellite data acquired in optical and microwave spectrum to develop method for the assessment of carbon fluxes.

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H. Czyż,
H. Jänicke,
T. Kitczak,
M. Bury

Ocena użytków zielonych odnowionych metodą pełnej uprawy położonych na glebie organicznej w dolinie rzeki Randow (Niemcy)

The evaluation of grasslands restored with full cultivation method and located on organic soil in the valley of the river Randow (Germany)

  • Abstract

    • Abstract. The performed study, involving the restoration of grasslands with full cultivation method on organic soil in the valley of the river Randow (Germany) – (Raminer Agrar GmbH & Co), revealed great suitability of this method for restoration of grasslands, and the grass mixture characterised by the highest productive potential among all mixtures used for sowing was Festuca arundinacea – 50% + Dactylis glomerata – 40% + Poa pratensis – 10%. Parameters of forage quality (crude protein, soluble sugars, crude fibre, net energy) reached similar levels on all objects, however they depended greatly on the harvested swath, where the first swath was superior.

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J. Daszkiewicz,
P. Goliński


Wpływ metody renowacji łąk śródleśnych na atrakcyjność pokarmową dla Cervus elaphus

The effect of mid-forest meadows renovation method on feed attractiveness for Cervus elaphus

  • Abstract

    • Abstract. Renovated mid-forest meadows are areas, which can reduce negative impact of growing population of red deer (Cervus elaphus) on forest and arable crops. Studies on ethology of red deer free-living population on revitalised mid-forest meadows was conducted on two experimental sites, where effect of different renovation methods – full tillage, including sowing of three types of seed mixtures (M1 – Blühende Wildäsung, M2 – Weidgreen Hochwildweide, M3 – author’s mixture), overdrilling and control objects (without renovation) were investigated. Evaluation of midforest renovation success was based on assessment of yielding and red deer sward intake. Results shows that both yielding and sward intake was higher on areas renovated by full tillage method than on overdrilled and control objects.

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M. Grzelak,
M. Murawski,
A. Knioła,
M. Jaśkowski

Uwarunkowania siedliskowe, walory przyrodnicze, wartość gospodarcza i użytkowa zbiorowisk szuwarowych na terenach zalewanych

Habitat conditions, nature value, economic value and useful of rush communities in flooded areas

  • Abstract

    • Abstract. Phytosociological and habitat studies of rush communities were conducted in the Noteć Bystra and Noteć Leniwa river valley in the years 2010–2014. These communities are of varied nature value and form valuable ecosystems of high landscape value. Their development, floristic diversity, nature and agricultural value are connected primarily with their moisture content, resulting from the habitat mosaic and land use intensity. The calculated floristic diversity index (H’) ranged from 1.2 to 2.7, while valuation results provided by the method proposed by Oświt showed that communities with moderately high and high nature value predominate in the area. Most examined communities are of poor and mediocre economic and utility value, as evidenced by the calculated fodder value score FVS=1.7–4.1.

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W. Harkot,
A. Gawryluk,
Z. Czarnecki,
M. Powroźnik,
W. Wańkowicz

Początkowy wzrost i rozwój wybranych gazonowych odmian Lolium perenne w różnych warunkach siedliskowych

Initial growth and development of selected lawn varieties of Lolium perenne in various habitat conditions

  • Abstract

    • Abstract. The study presents the assessment of initial growth and development of three Lolium perenne L. varieties (Natara, Nira and Taya) in two research series, in two habitats: A – in Sosnowica, at the Didactic-Research Station of the Department of Grassland and Landscape Forming, University of Life Sciences in Lublin and B – on the embankment of National Road No. 17 alongside the Piaski-Łopiennik stretch. In laboratory conditions, thousand grain weight (TGW) and grain germination capacity (in %) were assessed, while in field conditions the seedling growth and root elongation rate (mm) were assessed on the 20th, 40th and 60th day from the sowing date. The responses of the studied varieties to soil conditions were different. Regardless of the research series, the fastest seedling growth rate on mineral soil (habitat A) was observed for the Nira variety while on anthropogenic soil with an undeveloped profile (habitat B) – for the Natara variety. Regardless of the soil and weather conditions in both research series, the highest seedlings and longest roots were found in the Nira variety.

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M. Janicka,
M.A. Janicka

Zbiorowiska kserotermiczne rezerwatu florystycznego ,,Winnica” – stan, zagrożenia i ochrona

The xerothermic plant communities in the flora reserve “Winnica” – current state, threats and conservation status

  • Abstract

    • Abstract. The aim of the study was analyzing the floristic composition of the reserve “Winnica”, identify threats and the best ways of protecting this area. Based on 30 relevés five plant communities were distinguished. The most valuable of these is Adonido-Brachypodietum pinnati. 139 vascular plant species were recorded. Among them there were five protected species: three under strict and two under partial protection. The main natural threat of rare and protected species are three species of expansive nature, of the Rhamno-Prunetea class. In order to maintain the valuable xerothermic species it is necessary to complete active protection (mowing) with sheep grazing.

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M. Kopacz

Funkcje trwałych użytków zielonych na obszarach górskich w kontekście zmian prawno-gospodarczych

The role of permanent grasslands in mountain areas in terms of legal and economic changes

  • Abstract

    • Abstract. Permanent grasslands in addition to the production role are also of ecological and aesthetic importance. After 1989, the socio-economic transformations that began in Poland have significantly affected the changes in agricultural use. There was a limitation of agricultural production and transformation of agriculture in the mountains into more ecological and sustainable one. The area of arable land decreased for the sodded areas. Some of the grasslands began to transform into areas used for non-agricultural purposes, and even for development. These changes also arise from legal and financial conditions. Pre-accession funds (PHARE, SAPARD), the Code of Good Agricultural Practice, as well as PROW 2004-2006 and 2007-2013 had already the impact on the permanent grassland changes. The current PROW 2014-2020 and the principle of “cross-compliance” also draw attention to the need to maintain and enlarge the area of the grasslands. These conditions meant that many sward areas are used only for the purpose of obtaining direct payments, but it’s often forced farmers to change the way of grassland use. Many of them now have recreational functions. They are used to form golf courses, ski lifts, slopes for roller skis or horse-riding. The disadvantage of these changes is disorder of phenological phases of vegetation, or even destroying the sward. However, alternative use of green areas with proper care and preservation of the principles of sustainable development gives a chance for economic development of the region and indirectly reduces the total degradation of the grassland by e.g. self-forestation. 

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